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FumigantFumigants (from Latin fumigans, fumigantis mean fuming) are chemicals (pesticides) used for fighting against plant diseases and pests of fungal and bacterial origin. The active ingredient of fumigants (most often these are substances of synthetic origin) is toxic to humans and domestic animals and is quite strong insecticide, some fumigants belong to the category of highly toxic substances.

Many fumigants are quite toxic therefore their usage at home should be reasonable. Please, study safety requirements for work with toxicants before using fumigants.

Fumigation is a method to control pests and pathogens of plant diseases by poisoning them with toxic vapors, gases, smoke and aerosol with such devices that are called fumigators.

Terms and methods of fumigation depend on many factors:

  • on the level of infection of the treated object;
  • on the form of fumigant: liquid or solid substance;
  • on the method of fumigation: under tarpaulin or film material, and possibly in special vacuum or non-vacuum chambers, in warehouses, in the holds of ships, and etc.;
  • on types of fumigators, there are special machines - fumigators, devices for evaporation or compression of fumigants.

When fumigant is liquid, the treatment is carried out with the help of evaporation, thus, the treated object is immersed in the fumigant-charged atmosphere. In the same way fumigation is carried out if fumigant is solid (dry) substance. In case fumigant is gaseous substance, its application is carried out with special equipment.

There are many ways of fumigation, they are all aimed to destroy the object, that is to be struggled, by the influence of a poisonous atmosphere created by fumigant.

For fumigation with smoke, fumigants are burned in sheets or with smoke insecticidal and fungicidal checkers.

Fumigants are used for treatment of warehouse premises, greenhouses, elevators and such crops as grain, fruit, vegetables, grapes, tea and soil.

Working with fumigants, it is necessary to use respiratory protection equipment, and in case of contact with liquid fumigants, it’s required to wear rubber gloves.

Many fumigants are quite explosive and flammable, therefore they are used together with special extinguishing additives, dealing with such fumigants it’s forbidden to light fire, it is necessary to eliminate all possible sources of inflammation.

The uniqueness of these products lies in the fact that they can penetrate into the most inaccessible parts of plants and places. What is especially important is that they can overcome barriers in the form of wax and lanate surfaces on the leaves, which is not always possible for water solutions. Fumigants can fight effectively against especially dangerous and harmful organisms in cases where other protective means occurred to be powerless.

When fumigation is carried out with the aim to destroy harmful insects, it is very important to determine the time within which the fumigant (in the form of toxic gases and vapors) will have an impact on the respiratory organs of the pest.

Processing time can last from several hours till several days, with the need to follow pressurization conditions. The duration of fumigation depends directly on the properties of fumigants and the processed object and, of course, on the level of its infection.

Fumigants are also very widely used in everyday life. The most widely used fumigants are pyrotechnic and electric. Pyrotechnic fumigator is a burning spiral, the porous fuel substance (in the structure of which there is a fumigant) which generates heat and vaporizes insecticide after burning. There are two types of electric fumigators: tablet and liquid, these devices are powered from electrical network and emit fumigant with the help of a heating plate.